Researchers cited MBF systems in 25 papers between 5/16/2017 and 5/26/2017

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Baxter, V. K., Glowinski, R., Braxton, A. M., Potter, M. C., Slusher, B. S., & Griffin, D. E. (2017). Glutamine antagonist-mediated immune suppression decreases pathology but delays virus clearance in mice during nonfatal alphavirus encephalomyelitis. Virology, 508, 134-149. doi:

Brzozowska, N. I., Smith, K. L., Zhou, C., Waters, P. M., Cavalcante, L. M., Abelev, S. V., . . . Arnold, J. C. (2017). Genetic deletion of P-glycoprotein alters stress responsivity and increases depression-like behavior, social withdrawal and microglial activation in the hippocampus of female mice. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. doi:

Chareyron, L. J., Banta Lavenex, P., Amaral, D. G., & Lavenex, P. (2017). Functional organization of the medial temporal lobe memory system following neonatal hippocampal lesion in rhesus monkeys. Brain Structure and Function, 1-16. doi: 10.1007/s00429-017-1441-z.

Kwan, T., Floyd, C. L., Patel, J., Mohaimany-Aponte, A., & King, P. H. (2017). Astrocytic expression of the RNA regulator HuR accentuates spinal cord injury in the acute phase. Neuroscience Letters, 651, 140-145. doi:

Newville, J., Valenzuela, C. F., Li, L., Jantzie, L. L., & Cunningham, L. A. (2017). Acute oligodendrocyte loss with persistent white matter injury in a third trimester equivalent mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Glia, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1002/glia.23164.

Onger, M. E., Kaplan, S., Geuna, S., Türkmen, A. P., Muratori, L., Altun, G., & Altunkaynak, B. Z. (2017). Possible effects of some agents on the injured nerve in obese rats: A stereological and electron microscopic study. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. doi:

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Researchers cited MBF systems in 17 papers during the week of 05/08/2017

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Day, N. L., Carle, M. S., & Floyd, C. L. (2017). Post-injury administration of a combination of memantine and 17β-estradiol is protective in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. Neurochemistry International. doi:

El-Agnaf, O., Overk, C., Rockenstein, E., Mante, M., Florio, J., Adame, A., . . . Rissman, R. A. (2017). Differential effects of immunotherapy with antibodies targeting α-synuclein oligomers and fibrils in a transgenic model of synucleinopathy. Neurobiology of Disease, 104, 85-96. doi:

Matsuda, W., Ehara, A., Nakadate, K., Yoshimoto, K., & Ueda, S. (2017). Effects of environmental enrichment on the activity of the amygdala in micrencephalic rats exposed to a novel open field. Congenital Anomalies, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1111/cga.12228.

Musacchio, T., Rebenstorff, M., Fluri, F., Brotchie, J. M., Volkmann, J., Koprich, J. B., & Ip, C. W. (2017). STN-DBS is neuroprotective in the A53T α-synuclein Parkinson’s disease rat model. Annals of Neurology, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1002/ana.24947.

Soares, J. I., Valente, M. C., Andrade, P. A., Maia, G. H., & Lukoyanov, N. V. (2017). Reorganization of the septohippocampal cholinergic fiber system in experimental epilepsy. Journal of Comparative Neurology, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1002/cne.24235.

Yoshii, Y., Inoue, T., Uemura, Y., Iwasaki, Y., Yada, T., Nakabeppu, Y., & Noda, M. (2017). Complexity of Stomach–Brain Interaction Induced by Molecular Hydrogen in Parkinson’s Disease Model Mice. Neurochemical Research, 1-8. doi: 10.1007/s11064-017-2281-1.  Continue reading “Researchers cited MBF systems in 17 papers during the week of 05/08/2017” »

Researchers cited MBF systems in 42 papers between 4/7/2017 and 4/21/2017

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Ay, M., Luo, J., Langley, M., Jin, H., Anantharam, V., Kanthasamy, A., & Kanthasamy, A. G. (2017). Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Protective Effects of Quercetin Against Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Progressive Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Cell Culture and MitoPark Transgenic Mouse Models of Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Neurochemistry, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1111/jnc.14033.

Carryl, H., Van Rompay, K., De Paris, K., & Burke, M. (2017). Hippocampal Neuronal Loss in Infant Macaques Orally Infected with Virulent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV). Brain Sciences, 7(4), 40.

Galinato, M. H., Lockner, J. W., Fannon-Pavlich, M. J., Sobieraj, J. C., Staples, M. C., Somkuwar, S. S., . . . Mandyam, C. D. (2017). A synthetic small-molecule Isoxazole-9 protects against methamphetamine relapse. Molecular Psychiatry. doi: 10.1038/mp.2017.46.

Gilles, Y. D., & Polston, E. K. (2017). Effects of social deprivation on social and depressive-like behaviors and the numbers of oxytocin expressing neurons in rats. Behavioural Brain Research SreeTestContent1, 328, 28-38. doi:

Hamilton, G. F., Hernandez, I. J., Krebs, C. P., Bucko, P. J., & Rhodes, J. S. (2017). Neonatal alcohol exposure reduces number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and impairs passive avoidance acquisition in mice deficits not rescued from exercise. Neuroscience. doi:

Jinhua, H., Zhao, M., Shuangcheng, H., Yuanran, Z., Rui, N., Wei, L., . . . Jian, Y. (2017). Icariin protects against glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis, increases the expression of the bone enhancer DEC1 and modulates the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin integrated signaling pathway. Biochemical Pharmacology. doi:

Kafetzopoulos, V., Kokras, N., Sotiropoulos, I., Oliveira, J. F., Leite-Almeida, H., Vasalou, A., . . . Dalla, C. (2017). The nucleus reuniens: a key node in the neurocircuitry of stress and depression. Molecular Psychiatry. doi: 10.1038/mp.2017.55.

Lear, C. A., Davidson, J. O., Mackay, G. R., Drury, P. P., Galinsky, R., Quaedackers, J. S., . . . Bennet, L. (2017). Antenatal dexamethasone before asphyxia promotes cystic neural injury in preterm fetal sheep by inducing hyperglycemia. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 0271678X17703124. doi: 10.1177/0271678×17703124.

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MBF Bioscience Unveils Redesigned Interface for Neurolucida and Stereo Investigator version 2017

Neuroscientists can now analyze the size and complexity of neurons and collect unbiased stereology data with greater speed and efficiency

We are happy to announce the release of Neurolucida and Stereo Investigator version 2017. This version features a completely revamped user interface that’s intuitive and easy to navigate.

“Neurolucida and Stereo Investigator version 2017 are completely redesigned to improve the user experience and increase productivity,” said Jack Glaser, President of MBF Bioscience. “The new interface makes collecting accurate data much quicker and easier.”

Version 2017 has many new performance features in addition to the new user interface. It handles large image data more efficiently, gives users the ability to dynamically edit digital reconstructions in an interactive 3D environment, and much more. Neurolucida users will also see many improvements to Neurolucida Explorer – the companion software to Neurolucida that performs all the quantitative analyses generated from neurons that are digitally reconstructed with Neurolucida.

Highlights of Stereo Investigator and Neurolucida version 2017 include:

  • Easier Navigation – The ribbon bar design is task-oriented to make it easy to find what you need. A dynamic search bar and a quick access toolbar also aid productivity.
  • Improved Organization – Frequently used tools are prominent and easy to access. Tools are grouped by their function, and advanced settings are easily accessible.
  • Cleaner and simpler – The new user interface is modern and intuitive, making it easier to learn and to train new lab members.
  • Support for the latest technological advancements in microscopic imaging devices and computer hardware.

See version 2017 in action

MBF Bioscience will exhibit and demo Neurolucida and Stereo Investigator version 2017 at the annual Experimental Biology meeting April 23 – 25 in Chicago, Illinois.

Get a quick overview of the new user interface in these 2-minute videos:

Register for the upcoming webinar “Using the Optical Fractionator Probe to Estimate Number of Cells”

Researchers cited MBF systems in 27 papers between 3/20/2017 and 3/30/2017

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Abe, C., Inoue, T., Inglis, M. A., Viar, K. E., Huang, L., Ye, H., . . . Guyenet, P. G. (2017). C1 neurons mediate a stress-induced anti-inflammatory reflex in mice. Nature Neuroscience, advance online publication. doi: 10.1038/nn.4526

Caldwell, A. S. L., Edwards, M. C., Desai, R., Jimenez, M., Gilchrist, R. B., Handelsman, D. J., & Walters, K. A. (2017). Neuroendocrine androgen action is a key extraovarian mediator in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1616467114.

Castro-Hernández, J., Adlard, P. A., & Finkelstein, D. I. (2017). Pramipexole restores depressed transmission in the ventral hippocampus following MPTP-lesion. Scientific Reports, 7, 44426. doi: 10.1038/srep44426.

Dawes, W. J., Zhang, X., Fancy, S. P., Rowitch, D., & Marino, S. (2017). Moderate-Grade Germinal Matrix Haemorrhage Activates Cell Division in the Neonatal Mouse Subventricular Zone. Developmental Neuroscience.

Drobyshevsky, A., & Quinlan, K. A. (2017). Spinal cord injury in hypertonic newborns after antenatal hypoxia-ischemia in a rabbit model of cerebral palsy. Experimental Neurology, 293, 13-26. doi:

El Massri, N., Lemgruber, A. P., Rowe, I. J., Moro, C., Torres, N., Reinhart, F., . . . Mitrofanis, J. (2017). Photobiomodulation-induced changes in a monkey model of Parkinson’s disease: changes in tyrosine hydroxylase cells and GDNF expression in the striatum. Experimental Brain Research, 1-14. doi: 10.1007/s00221-017-4937-0.

Hühner, L., Rilka, J., Gilsbach, R., Zhou, X., Machado, V., & Spittau, B. (2017). Interleukin-4 Protects Dopaminergic Neurons In vitro but Is Dispensable for MPTP-Induced Neurodegeneration In vivo. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 10(62). doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2017.00062.

Meng, L., Huang, T., Sun, C., Hill, D. L., & Krimm, R. (2017). BDNF is required for taste axon regeneration following unilateral chorda tympani nerve section. Experimental Neurology, 293, 27-42. doi:

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A complete guide to imaging and analyzing spines and neurons with Neurolucida 360

Following a well-designed protocol is essential to achieving accurate and consistent results in scientific research. Now, scientists using Neurolucida 360 for dendritic spine and neuron analysis can follow a published set of guidelines to ensure optimal confocal data series for proper dendritic spine quantification and neuron reconstruction. The paper, written by MBF Bioscience scientists and researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York, was published in Current Protocols in Neuroscience.

The four protocols describe best practices for imaging and analyzing dendritic spines and entire neurons. Clearly laid out procedures specify necessary materials, image acquisition techniques, and analysis procedures with Neurolucida 360.

Imaging technique is crucial to obtaining unbiased, reproducible results. Clear, crisp images captured with an appropriate z-interval will make analysis with Neurolucida 360 easier and more accurate. Throughout the paper, the authors emphasize the importance of image scaling parameters and unbiased sampling for achieving repeatable results. They also discuss the benefits of correcting optical distortion, especially in the Z-plane, with deconvolution to acquire clear images – a process critical to getting the most accurate representation of dendrites and spines.

Dendritic spine analysis is traditionally performed through tedious, time-consuming manual techniques. According to the paper, this has spawned a growing interest in a more efficient solution for spine quantification and morphological analysis like the one Neurolucida 360 provides. A software platform for automatic neuron reconstruction and spine detection in a 3D environment, Neurolucida 360 offers a variety of benefits, including:


  • Fast and accurate spine detection and neuron reconstruction
  • Accurate spine classification and length quantification using a five-point segment that more accurately models the spine backbone.
  • 3 user-guided and automatic algorithms to accurately model neurons visualized with multiple methodologies and imaging techniques.
  • A large number of metrics, including volume, length, and surface area.


“We believe that the new quantitative software package, Neurolucida 360, provides the neuroscience research community with the ability to perform higher throughput automated 3D quantitative light microscopy spine analysis under standardized conditions to accelerate the characterization of dendritic spines with greater objectivity and reliability,” (Dickstein, et al. 2016)

The full paper can be found here.

An infographic quickly outlines Protocol 1: Imaging of fluorescently labeled dendritic segments. Use this as a quick reference tool in your lab (right-click on it to save as an image):

Dickstein, D.L., Dickstein, D.R., Janssen, W.G.M., Hof, P.R., Glaser, J.R., Rodriguez, A., O’Connor, N., Angstman, P., and Tappan, S.J. 2016. Automatic dendritic spine quantification from confocal data with Neurolucida 360. Curr. Protoc. Neurosci. 77:1.27.1-1.27.21. doi: 10.1002/cpns.16

Researchers cited MBF systems in 27 papers during the week of 03/13/2017

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Ambrosi, G., Kustrimovic, N., Siani, F., Rasini, E., Cerri, S., Ghezzi, C., . . . Blandini, F. (2017). Complex Changes in the Innate and Adaptive Immunity Accompany Progressive Degeneration of the Nigrostriatal Pathway Induced by Intrastriatal Injection of 6-Hydroxydopamine in the Rat. Neurotoxicity research, 1-11. doi: 10.1007/s12640-017-9712-2.

Chen, B. K., Madigan, N. N., Hakim, J. S., Dadsetan, M., McMahon, S. S., Yaszemski, M. J., & Windebank, A. J. (2017). GDNF Schwann cells in hydrogel scaffolds promote regional axon regeneration, remyelination and functional improvement after spinal cord transection in rats. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1002/term.2431.

Cheng, L., Lau, W. K. W., Fung, T. K. H., Lau, B. W. M., Chau, B. K. H., Liang, Y., . . . Lee, T. M. C. (2017). PM2.5 Exposure Suppresses Dendritic Maturation in Subgranular Zone in Aged Rats.  Neurotoxicity research, 1-8. doi: 10.1007/s12640-017-9710-4.

Herrera-Soto, A., Díaz-Veliz, G., Mora, S., Muñoz, P., Henny, P., Steinbusch, H. W. M., & Segura-Aguilar, J. (2017). On the Role of DT-Diaphorase Inhibition in Aminochrome-Induced Neurotoxicity In Vivo.  Neurotoxicity research, 1-7. doi: 10.1007/s12640-017-9719-8.

Kaufling, J., Girard, D., Maitre, M., Leste-Lasserre, T., & Georges, F. (2017). Species-specific diversity in the anatomical and physiological organization of the BNST-VTA pathway. European Journal of Neuroscience, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1111/ejn.13554.

Keiner, S., Niv, F., Neumann, S., Steinbach, T., Schmeer, C., Hornung, K., . . . Redecker, C. (2017). Effect of skilled reaching training and enriched environment on generation of oligodendrocytes in the adult sensorimotor cortex and corpus callosum. BMC Neuroscience, 18(1), 31. doi: 10.1186/s12868-017-0347-2.

Mikrogeorgiou, A., Sato, Y., Kondo, T., Hattori, T., Sugiyama, Y., Ito, M., . . . Kazama, T. (2017). Dedifferentiated Fat Cells as a Novel Source for Cell Therapy to Target Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy. Developmental Neuroscience.

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Researchers cited MBF systems in 28 papers during the week of 03/06/2017

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Akkhawattanangkul, Y., Maiti, P., Xue, Y., Aryal, D., Wetsel, W. C., Hamilton, D., . . . McDonald, M. P. (2017). Targeted deletion of GD3 synthase protects against MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. Genes, Brain and Behavior, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1111/gbb.12377.

Chung, Y. C., Baek, J. Y., Kim, S. R., Ko, H. W., Bok, E., Shin, W.-H., . . . Jin, B. K. (2017). Capsaicin prevents degeneration of dopamine neurons by inhibiting glial activation and oxidative stress in the MPTP model of Parkinson/’s disease. Experimental and Molecular Medicine, 49, e298. doi: 10.1038/emm.2016.159.

Hajheidari, S., Sameni, H. R., Bandegi, A. R., & Miladi-gorji, H. (2017). Effects of prolonged abstinence from METH on the hippocampal BDNF levels, neuronal numbers and apoptosis in methamphetamine-sensitized rats. Neuroscience Letters, 645, 80-85. doi:

Krishnasamy, S., Weng, Y.-C., Thammisetty, S. S., Phaneuf, D., Lalancette-Hebert, M., & Kriz, J. (2017). Molecular imaging of nestin in neuroinflammatory conditions reveals marked signal induction in activated microglia. Journal of neuroinflammation, 14(1), 45. doi: 10.1186/s12974-017-0816-7.

Langley, M., Ghosh, A., Charli, A., Sarkar, S., Ay, M., Luo, J., . . . Kanthasamy, A. (2017). Mito-apocynin Prevents Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Microglial Activation, Oxidative Damage and Progressive Neurodegeneration in MitoPark Transgenic Mice. Antioxidants & redox signaling. doi: 10.1089/ars.2016.6905.

Leal-Campanario, R., Alarcon-Martinez, L., Rieiro, H., Martinez-Conde, S., Alarcon-Martinez, T., Zhao, X., . . . Macknik, S. L. (2017). Abnormal Capillary Vasodynamics Contribute to Ictal Neurodegeneration in Epilepsy.  Scientific Reports, 7, 43276. doi: 10.1038/srep43276

Mao, Z., Liu, C., Ji, S., Yang, Q., Ye, H., Han, H., & Xue, Z. (2017). The NLRP3 Inflammasome is Involved in the Pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease in Rats. Neurochemical Research, 1-12. doi: 10.1007/s11064-017-2185-0.

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Researchers cited MBF systems in 12 papers during the week of 02/27/2017

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Cao, M., Wu, Y., Ashrafi, G., McCartney, A. J., Wheeler, H., Bushong, E. A., . . . De Camilli, P. (2017). Parkinson Sac Domain Mutation in Synaptojanin 1 Impairs Clathrin Uncoating at Synapses and Triggers Dystrophic Changes in Dopaminergic Axons. Neuron, 93(4), 882-896.e885. doi:

Makinson, C. D., Tanaka, B. S., Sorokin, J. M., Wong, J. C., Christian, C. A., Goldin, A. L., . . . Huguenard, J. R. (2017). Regulation of Thalamic and Cortical Network Synchrony by Scn8a. Neuron. doi:

Mor, D. E. (2016). The toxic interaction of dopamine and alpha-synuclein: Implications for Parkinson’s disease. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from….

Patzlaff, N. E., Nemec, K. M., Malone, S. G., Li, Y., & Zhao, X. (2017). Fragile X related protein 1 (FXR1P) regulates proliferation of adult neural stem cells. Human Molecular Genetics.

Shepherd, D. (2016). Examining the effects of anti-Nogo-A immunotherapy on post-stroke neurogenesis in the adult rat. Loyola University Chicago. Retrieved from….

Shobin, E., Bowley, M. P., Estrada, L. I., Heyworth, N. C., Orczykowski, M. E., Eldridge, S. A., . . . Rosene, D. L. (2017). Microglia activation and phagocytosis: relationship with aging and cognitive impairment in the rhesus monkey. GeroScience, 1-22. doi: 10.1007/s11357-017-9965-y.

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Exercise changes astrocytes and eases symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders

Astrocytes (GFAP) in the dentate gyrus of a mouse hippocampus. Image courtesy of Dr. Ahmad Salehi, Stanford University. 

It is well known that physical exercise eases the symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s disease and helps to prevent their onset. Researchers at Stanford University are working on figuring out how it happens.

In their study, published in the journal Brain Structure and Function, scientists in Dr. Ahmad Salehi’s lab examined the effects of physical exercise on astrocytes in a region of the mouse brain that is critical for cognition – the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Previous studies have shown that an increase in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) occurs in this region after exercise (Philips, Salehi et al 2014). Bdnf is a protein that supports the survival of existing neurons and encourages new growth, playing an important role in cognitive function.

While the current study reconfirms that exercise generates increased levels of Bdnf (more than a fourfold increase in exercised mice versus non-exercised mice), it also describes several new findings including increased synaptic load in the dentate gyrus, alterations in the morphology of astrocytes, and changes in the orientation of astrocytic projections toward dentate granule cells.

The authors speculate that the changes they observed may be attributed to increased expression of a receptor called TrkB, which astrocytes express in response to increases in Bdnf levels. According to the paper, TrkB binds to Bdnf, activating the mechanisms behind neuronal development.

“Our study suggests that astrocytes actively respond and could indeed mediate the positive effects of physical exercise on the central nervous system and potentially counter degenerative processes during aging and neurodegenerative disorders,” (Fahimi, et al 2016).

The researchers used Neurolucida to determine the location, the extent, and orientation of astrocytic projections, finding a significant increase in the length of astrocytic projections in exercised mice.

“Neurolucida is one of the very few systems that combines complex morphometrical quantification with beautiful display of the results,” said Dr. Salehi, Clinical Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford Medical School.

Since astrocytes help prevent excitotoxicity in the brain by removing excess glutamate from extracellular space, the researchers speculate that the increased length of astrocytic projections they observed in exercised mice could make this process more efficient.

Differences in the orientation of astrocytic projections were also reported, with the majority of projections of exercised mice directed toward the dentate granule cell layer – a region featuring increased levels of Bdnf release and synthesis after exercise.

The number of astrocytes in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus in exercised and non-exercised mice was quantified with Stereo Investigator, however, there was no significant difference in astrocyte populations between the two groups.

“In summary, our study suggests that astrocytes constitute an important element in mediating the positive effects of physical exercise in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Furthermore, it appears that physical exercise-induced release of Bdnf by the DG leads to a significant alteration in structure and function of astrocytes in protection against glutamate toxicity during aging and a number of neurodegenerative disorders,” (Fahimi et al 2016)

Fahimi, A., Baktir, M.A., Moghadam, S., Mojabi, F.S., Sumanth, K., McNerney, M.W., Ponnusamy, R., Salehi, A. Brain Struct Funct (2016). doi:10.1007/s00429-016-1308-8

Phillips, C., Baktir, M.A., Srivatsam, M., Salehi, A. Front. Cell. Neurosci., (2014)