In Memoriam: Edmund M. Glaser, PhD

Dr. Edmund Glaser devoted his career of more than four decades to the field of neuroscience. Most notably, in 1963, he co-invented computer microscopy, a pioneering method of quantifying the brain’s morphometry. This technology, for the first time, applied computer techniques to the neuroanatomical world, permitting scientists to precisely quantify the brain’s three-dimensional structure. It simplified time-consuming, inexact classical methodologies in an efficient and cost-effective method. By 1995, the year of Dr. Glaser’s retirement, computer microscopy had been adopted by thousands of neuroscience laboratories throughout the world.

Dr.Edmund GlaserDr. Glaser started his college education in his hometown, New York City, studying Electrical Engineering at The Cooper Union. In the midst of his college career, he was drafted and served in the U.S. Army during WWII. His duty took him to Nuremberg, where he was a sound recordist and photographer who documented the Medical War Trials of infamous Nazi physicians. After his military service, he completed his bachelor’s degree in 1949. After doing early project work in communications systems and guided missiles for the U.S. Air Force, he soon became attracted to the emerging fields of computing, information theory, and artificial intelligence. In 1952, he returned to his academic studies in engineering. He received a PhD from Johns Hopkins University in 1960 and then secured a postdoctoral fellowship in its Department of Physiology in the School of Medicine.

In 1963, Dr. Glaser teamed up with Dr. Hendrik Van der Loos, a neuroanatomist at Johns Hopkins, to study the complex morphology of the brain’s cerebral cortex. They encountered the shortcomings of the time’s tedious neuroanatomical techniques and noted the need to revamp the prevailing methods of analyzing neuron morphology and neuronal networks within the cerebral cortex. It was then that they formulated the design and the construction of the first computer microscope.

Computer microscopy at that time was based on the use of analog computer technology. Glaser and Van der Loos demonstrated the great improvements that could made in neuroanatomy by adapting computer technology, it showed the practical way to represent the brain’s structure in its intrinsic three-dimensional reality. In so doing, the quantification of neuroanatomy was wholly revolutionized. Tracing neuronal structures was reduced from hours to minutes and measurement precision was able to achieve fractional micron accuracy. What is more, large assemblies of neuronal networks could be examined in quantitative detail in three dimensions.

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Scientists use Vesselucida 360 to quantify brain vasculature in mTBI model

It is not uncommon for war veterans returning home from war-zones like Iraq and Afghanistan to suffer from blast-induced traumatic brain injuries (TBI). In these situations, the most common types of blasts are lower level blasts, the kind that produce mild TBIs (mTBI). Though the effects of a mTBI aren’t visible from the outside, scientists say the blood vessels inside the brain are deeply altered.

In their study of a mouse model of mTBI that mimics the blast exposure associated with human mild TBI, a research team, that includes MBF Bioscience Scientific Director Dr. Susan Tappan, say that low-level blast exposure disrupts the way cells interact with each other within the brain’s neurovascular unit.

Fig:1 Chronic vascular pathology in blast-exposed rats revealed by micro-CT scanning. Two control and two blast-exposed rats were transcardially perfused with the Brite Vu contrast agent at 10 months after blast exposure. Brains were scanned at a resolution of 7.5 μm using equispaced angles of view around 360°, and 3D reconstructions were prepared with Bruker’s CTVox 3D visualization software. a-d MIP images of volume-rendered brain vasculature from two control (a, b) and two blast-exposed (c, d) rats revealed diffuse thinning of the brain vasculature in the blast-exposed rats. Scale bar, 2 mm. e-h Trace sagittal reconstructions used for the automated quantitation from control (e-f) and blastexposed rats (g-h) o-p Higher magnification views of the regions outlined by the boxes in panels (f) and (h). Scale bars, 1 mm for (e-h), and 0.6mm for (o-p). i-n Reconstructions of coronal optical sections from the brains of control (i, k) and blast-exposed (j, l) animals. Panels (i) and (j) correspond approximately to coordinates interaural 12.24–9.48 mm and panels (k) and (l) correspond approximately to coordinates interaural 6.94–3.24 mm. Lateral views of (i) and (j) are shown in (m) and (n), respectively. Vessels were color coded to allow visualization of individual vessels automatically traced by the Vesselucida 360 software. Note the general loss of radial organization in the blast-exposed shown in panel (j). Scale bar, 1 mm for (i-n)

Aiming to mimic an event often experienced by soldiers and military personnel in war-torn regions, the scientists exposed rats to a series of three blasts — one blast per day, over three consecutive days. Though the rats developed behaviors typical to chronic PTSD, their neuronal pathology, at least at the light and electron microscopy levels remained unchanged, according to the study. However, when the researchers examined the rat brains on a vascular level, they found evidence of chronic damage.

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Researchers cited MBF Bioscience systems in 24 papers between 1/4/2019 and 1/18/2019

Stereo Investigator:

Branch, A., Monasterio, A., Blair, G., Knierim, J. J., Gallagher, M., & Haberman, R. P. (2019). Aged rats with preserved memory dynamically recruit hippocampal inhibition in a local/global cue mismatch environment. Neurobiology of Aging. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2018.12.015.

Chung, Y., Buechel, B. D., Sunwoo, W., Wagner, J. D., & Delgutte, B. (2019). Neural ITD Sensitivity and Temporal Coding with Cochlear Implants in an Animal Model of Early-Onset Deafness. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology. doi: 10.1007/s10162-018-00708-w.

Ganeshan, V., Skladnev, N. V., Kim, J. Y., Mitrofanis, J., Stone, J., & Johnstone, D. M. (2019). Pre-conditioning with Remote Photobiomodulation Modulates the Brain Transcriptome and Protects Against MPTP Insult in Mice. Neuroscience, 400, 85-97. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.12.050.

Gao, Ruixuan, Shoh M. Asano, Srigokul Upadhyayula, Igor Pisarev, Daniel E. Milkie, Tsung-Li Liu, Ved Singh, et al. Cortical Column and Whole-Brain Imaging with Molecular Contrast and Nanoscale Resolution. Science 363, no. 6424 (January 18, 2019): eaau8302. doi: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau8302. Continue reading “Researchers cited MBF Bioscience systems in 24 papers between 1/4/2019 and 1/18/2019” »

MBF Bioscience research team contributes novel dendritic spine analysis in study published in Science

Combination of new microscopy and expansion tissue preparation methods facilitate better and faster analysis of subcellular neural elements.

Today, the journal Science published a paper authored by a research team led by Dr. Ed Boyden of MIT and Nobel Prize recipient Dr. Eric Betzig of Janelia Research Campus. Among the authors are MBF Bioscience Scientific Director Dr. Susan Tappan and Senior Software Engineer Alfredo Rodriguez. In the paper, the researchers introduce new analyses for neural circuits at nanoscale resolutions.

Combining microscopy methods that create high resolution 3D images from whole brains and tissue that have been made physically larger, the researchers imaged a mouse cortex and fruit fly brain in their study “Cortical column and whole-brain imaging of neural circuits with molecular contrast and nanoscale resolution (Gao et al, 2019).”

By creating enhanced processing and analysis tools in MBF Bioscience’s Stereo Investigator and Neurolucida 360 software, Dr. Tappan and Mr. Rodriguez analyzed these images to obtain comprehensive morphometrics of delicate dendritic spines at a greater accuracy than ever before.

GAO ET AL./SCIENCE 2019

“We combined expansion microscopy and lattice light sheet microscopy (ExLLSM) to image the nanoscale spatial relationships between proteins across the thickness of the mouse cortex or the entire Drosophila brain, including synaptic proteins at dendritic spines, myelination along axons, and presynaptic densities at dopaminergic neurons in every fly neuropil domain.” (Gao et al, 2019)

While several forms of microscopy exist that have the ability to image subcellular neural elements, scientists say that each of these methods is lacking in one way or another. According to the paper, the combination of expansion microscopy with lattice-light sheet microscopy gives the most effective results, while considerably decreasing the time spent carrying out the experiment.

“I believe this type of imaging represents a major milestone in terms of the accuracy that can be achieved in dendritic spine morphometry from light microscopy,” Mr. Rodriguez said.

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MBF Bioscience receives NIH funding to support innovative research program on the peripheral nervous system

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

MBF Bioscience Williston, VT – January 9, 2019 – MBF Bioscience is pleased to announce our participation in the Stimulating Peripheral Activity to Relieve Conditions (SPARC) program. Funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), this extensive research initiative is a vast collaborative effort, which aims to deepen the understanding of how the peripheral nervous system impacts internal organ function.

“We are honored to be working in collaboration with over 40 research teams in the United States and around the world who are making revolutionary discoveries about how the network of nerves located outside the brain and spinal cord affect organs such as the heart, stomach, and bladder, and what role these nerves play in diseases like hypertension and type II diabetes as well as gastrointestinal and inflammatory disorders,” says Jack Glaser, President of MBF Bioscience.

To facilitate this important research, MBF Bioscience will provide the collaborating research scientists with both software and support. Specifically, we will provide image segmentation tools developed to handle large and diverse amounts of scientific image data. Software applications such as Neurolucida 360®, Tissue Mapper™ and Tissue Maker™ will enable researchers to image and analyze nerves, tissues, and entire organs in 2D and 3D.

“Representing the innervation patterns accurately and robustly is an essential contribution to the generation of representative models that can be used for simulations.  We are working with our partners at the University of Auckland, under the direction of Professor Peter Hunter, to create these models for each organ system that will be an enduring resource for scientists for years to come,” says Susan Tappan, Scientific Director at MBF Bioscience.

Researchers involved in the SPARC program are making important advances in health and medicine, which may lead to the development of new therapies for managing an array of illnesses and disorders. Some examples of research areas include subcutaneous nerve stimulation for arrhythmia control, sensory neuromodulation of the esophagus, and mapping of the neural circuitry of bone marrow. We are thrilled about this opportunity to work in partnership with such an impressive array of research teams on this ground-breaking project.

About MBF Bioscience
MBF Bioscience creates quantitative imaging and visualization software for stereology, neuron reconstruction, vascular analysis, C. elegans behavior analysis, and medical education—integrated with the world’s leading microscope systems—to empower research. Our development team and staff scientists are actively engaged with leading bioscience researchers, and constantly work to refine our products based on state-of-the-art scientific advances.

Founded as MicroBrightField, Inc. in 1988, we changed our name to MBF Bioscience in 2005 to reflect the expansion of our products and services to new microscopy techniques in all fields of biological research and education. While we continue to specialize in neuroscience research, our products are also used extensively in pulmonary, cardiac, kidney, cancer, stem cell, and toxicology research.

Our commitment to innovative products and unrivaled customer support has gained high praise from distinguished scientists all over the world and resulted in MBF expanding into a global business with offices in North America, Europe, Japan, and China. Our flagship products, Stereo Investigator® and Neurolucida®, are the most widely-used analysis systems of their kind.

About SPARC

Stimulating Peripheral Activity to Relieve Conditions (SPARC) is a National Institutes of Health (NIH) program that focuses on understanding peripheral nerves — nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body — and how their electrical signals control internal organ function. Methods and medical devices that modulate these nerve signals are a potentially powerful way to treat many diseases and conditions, such as hypertension, heart failure, gastrointestinal disorders, type II diabetes, inflammatory disorders, and more.

Researchers cited MBF Bioscience systems in 9 papers between 12/14/2018 and 12/21/2018

Stereo Investigator:

Kumar, A. J., Motta-Teixeira, L. C., Takada, S. H., Lee, V. Y., Machado-Nils, A. V., Xavier, G. F., & Nogueira, M. I. (2018). Behavioral, cognitive and histological changes following neonatal anoxia: male and female rats’ differences at adolescent age. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2018.12.002.

Martínez Cerdeño, V., Hong, T., Amina, S., Lechpammer, M., Ariza, J., Tassone, F., . . . Hagerman, R. (2018). Microglial cell activation and senescence are characteristic of the pathology FXTAS. Movement Disorders, 0(0). doi: 10.1002/mds.27553.

Osipovitch, M., Asenjo Martinez, A., Mariani, J. N., Cornwell, A., Dhaliwal, S., Zou, L., . . . Goldman, S. A. (2018). Human ESC-Derived Chimeric Mouse Models of Huntington’s Disease Reveal Cell-Intrinsic Defects in Glial Progenitor Cell Differentiation. Cell Stem Cell. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2018.11.010.

Neurolucida:

Chaaya, N., Jacques, A., Belmer, A., Richard, D. J., Bartlett, S. E., Battle, A. R., & Johnson, L. R. (2018). Localization of Contextual and Context Removed Auditory Fear Memory within the Basolateral Amygdala Complex. Neuroscience. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.12.004.

Eastwood, B. S., Hooks, B. M., Paletzki, R. F., O’Connor, N. J., Glaser, J. R., & Gerfen, C. R. (2018). Whole Mouse Brain Reconstruction and Registration to a Reference Atlas with Standard Histochemical Processing of Coronal Sections. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 0(ja), e24602. doi: 10.1002/cne.24602.  Continue reading “Researchers cited MBF Bioscience systems in 9 papers between 12/14/2018 and 12/21/2018” »

Researchers cited MBF Bioscience systems in 14 papers between 12/7/2018 and 12/14/2018

Stereo Investigator:

Aldehri, M., Temel, Y., Jahanshahi, A., & Hescham, S. (2018). Fornix deep brain stimulation induces reduction of hippocampal synaptophysin levels. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2018.12.001.

Carrica, L., Li, L., Newville, J., Kenton, J., Gustus, K., Brigman, J., & Cunningham, L. A. (2019). Genetic inactivation of hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) in adult hippocampal progenitors impairs neurogenesis and pattern discrimination learning. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 157, 79-85. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2018.12.002.

Fowke, T. M., Galinsky, R., Davidson, J. O., Wassink, G., Karunasinghe, R. N., Prasad, J. D., . . . Dean, J. M. (2018). Loss of interneurons and disruption of perineuronal nets in the cerebral cortex following hypoxia-ischaemia in near-term fetal sheep. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 17686. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-36083-y.

Gibson, E. M., Nagaraja, S., Ocampo, A., Tam, L. T., Wood, L. S., Pallegar, P. N., . . . Monje, M. (2018). Methotrexate Chemotherapy Induces Persistent Tri-glial Dysregulation that Underlies Chemotherapy-Related Cognitive Impairment. Cell. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.10.049. Continue reading “Researchers cited MBF Bioscience systems in 14 papers between 12/7/2018 and 12/14/2018” »

Researchers cited MBF Bioscience systems in 16 papers between 11/26/2018 and 12/7/2018

Stereo Investigator

Beldick, S. R., Hong, J., Altamentova, S., Khazaei, M., Hundal, A., Zavvarian, M.-M., . . . Fehlings, M. G. (2018). Severe-combined immunodeficient rats can be used to generate a model of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury to facilitate studies of engrafted human neural stem cells. Plos one, 13(11). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208105.

Guimarães, M. R., Soares, A. R., Cunha, A. M., Esteves, M., Borges, S., Magalhães, R., . . . Leite-Almeida, H. (2018). Evidence for lack of direct causality between pain and affective disturbances in a rat peripheral neuropathy model. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 0(ja), e12542. doi: 10.1111/gbb.12542.

Killoran, K. E., Kropp, L. E., Lindrose, A. R., Curtis, H. E., Cook, D., & Mitre, E. (2018). Rush desensitization with a single antigen induces subclinical activation of mast cells and protects against bystander challenge in dually sensitized mice. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 0(ja). doi: 10.1111/cea.13323.

Korkmaz, O. T., Ay, H., Aytan, N., Carreras, I., Kowall, N. W., Dedeoglu, A., & Tuncel, N. (2018). Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Decreases β-Amyloid Accumulation and Prevents Brain Atrophy in the 5xFAD Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. doi: 10.1007/s12031-018-1226-8. Continue reading “Researchers cited MBF Bioscience systems in 16 papers between 11/26/2018 and 12/7/2018” »

Researchers cited MBF Bioscience systems in 11 papers between 11/3/2018 and 11/26/2018

Stereo Investigator

Buchman, A. S., Leurgans, S. E., VanderHorst, V. G. J. M., Nag, S., Schneider, J. A., & Bennett, D. A. (2018). Spinal motor neurons and motor function in older adults. Journal of Neurology. doi: 10.1007/s00415-018-9118-y.

Chew, C., Kiley, B. J., & Sengelaub, D. R. (2018). Neuroprotective effects on the morphology of somatic motoneurons following the death of neighboring motoneurons: A role for microglia? Developmental Neurobiology, 0(ja). doi: 10.1002/dneu.22652.

Karasawa, M., Yokouchi, K., Kawagishi, K., Moriizumi, T., & Fukushima, N. (2018). Effects of various lengths of hypoglossal nerve resection on motoneuron survival. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2018.11.020.

Khattak, S., Gupta, N., Zhou, X., Pires, L., Wilson, B. C., & Yucel, Y. (2018). Non-invasive dynamic assessment of conjunctival melanomas using photoacoustic imaging. Experimental Eye Research. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2018.11.014. Continue reading “Researchers cited MBF Bioscience systems in 11 papers between 11/3/2018 and 11/26/2018” »

Researchers cited MBF Bioscience systems in 26 papers between 10/19/2018 and 11/2/2018

Stereo Investigator

Castillo-Ruiz, A., Mosley, M., Jacobs, A. J., Hoffiz, Y. C., & Forger, N. G. (2018). Birth delivery mode alters perinatal cell death in the mouse brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1811962115.

Chen, Y.-H., Lee, H.-J., Lee, M. T., Wu, Y.-T., Lee, Y.-H., Hwang, L.-L., . . . Chiou, L.-C. (2018). Median nerve stimulation induces analgesia via orexin-initiated endocannabinoid disinhibition in the periaqueductal gray. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1807991115.

Garcia-Miralles, M., Yusof, N. A. B. M., Tan, J. Y., Radulescu, C. I., Sidik, H., Tan, L. J., . . . Pouladi, M. A. (2018). Laquinimod Treatment Improves Myelination Deficits at the Transcriptional and Ultrastructural Levels in the YAC128 Mouse Model of Huntington Disease. Molecular Neurobiology. doi: 10.1007/s12035-018-1393-1.

Illouz, T., Madar, R., Biragyn, A., & Okun, E. (2018). Restoring microglial and astroglial homeostasis using DNA immunization in a Down Syndrome mouse model. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2018.10.004. Continue reading “Researchers cited MBF Bioscience systems in 26 papers between 10/19/2018 and 11/2/2018” »