Researchers cited MBF systems in 17 papers during the week of 7/18/2016

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Chandra, G., Rangasamy, S. B., Roy, A., Kordower, J. H., & Pahan, K. (2016). Neutralization of RANTES and Eotaxin Prevents the Loss of Dopaminergic Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinson Disease. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 291(29), 15267-15281. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.714824

Doucet-Beaupré, H., Gilbert, C., Profes, M. S., Chabrat, A., Pacelli, C., Giguère, N., . . . Lévesque, M. (2016). Lmx1a and Lmx1b regulate mitochondrial functions and survival of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1520387113

Kalidindi, A., Kelly, S. D., Singleton, K. S., Guzman, D., Merrill, L., Willard, S. L., . . . Neigh, G. N. (2016). Reduced marker of vascularization in the anterior hippocampus in a female monkey model of depression. Physiology and Behavior. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.07.007.

Kobayashi, K., Sano, H., Kato, S., Kuroda, K., Nakamuta, S., Isa, T., . . . Kobayashi, K. (2016). Survival of corticostriatal neurons by Rho/Rho-kinase signaling pathway. Neuroscience Letters. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2016.07.020.

Lei, P., Ayton, S., Appukuttan, A. T., Moon, S., Duce, J. A., Volitakis, I., . . . Bush, A. I. (2016). Lithium suppression of tau induces brain iron accumulation and neurodegeneration. Molecular Psychiatry. doi: 10.1038/mp.2016.96.

Liang, S.-H., Yin, J.-B., Sun, Y., bai, Y., Zhou, K.-X., Zhao, W.-J., . . . Li, Y.-Q. (2016). Collateral Projections from the Lateral Parabrachial Nucleus to the Paraventricular Thalamic Nucleus and the Central Amygdaloid Nucleus in the Rat. Neuroscience Letters. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2016.07.017.

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Researchers cited MBF systems in 18 papers during the week of 7/11/2016

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Baufeld, C., Osterloh, A., Prokop, S., Miller, K. R., & Heppner, F. L. (2016). High-fat diet-induced brain region-specific phenotypic spectrum of CNS resident microglia. Acta Neuropathologica, 1-15. doi: 10.1007/s00401-016-1595-4.

Bischoff, S., Schmidt, M., Lehmann, T., Irintchev, A., Schubert, H., Jung, C., . . . Schiffner, R. (2016). Increase of cortical cerebral blood flow and further cerebral microcirculatory effects of Serelaxin in a sheep model.  American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

Chou, C.-H., & Modo, M. (2016). Human neural stem cell-induced endothelial morphogenesis requires autocrine/paracrine and juxtacrine signaling. Scientific Reports, 6, 29029. doi: 10.1038/srep29029

El Massri, N., Moro, C., Torres, N., Darlot, F., Agay, D., Chabrol, C., . . . Mitrofanis, J. (2016). Near-infrared light treatment reduces astrogliosis in MPTP-treated monkeys.  Experimental Brain Research, 1-8. doi: 10.1007/s00221-016-4720-7.

Janer, A., Prudent, J., Paupe, V., Fahiminiya, S., Majewski, J., Sgarioto, N., . . . Gingras, A. C. (2016). SLC25A46 is required for mitochondrial lipid homeostasis and cristae maintenance and is responsible for Leigh syndrome. EMBO Molecular Medicine, e201506159.

Moro, C., Massri, N. E., Darlot, F., Torres, N., Chabrol, C., Agay, D., . . . Benabid, A.-L. (2016). Effects of a higher dose of near-infrared light on clinical signs and neuroprotection in a monkey model of Parkinson’s disease. Brain Research. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2016.07.005.

Petryszyn, S., Di Paolo, T., Parent, A., & Parent, M. (2016). The number of striatal cholinergic interneurons expressing calretinin is increased in parkinsonian monkeys. Neurobiology of Disease. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2016.07.002.

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Researchers cited MBF systems in 18 papers during the week of 7/4/2016

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Botterill, J. J., Nogovitsyn, N., Caruncho, H. J., & Kalynchuk, L. E. (2016). Selective plasticity of hippocampal GABAergic interneuron populations following kindling of different brain regions. Journal of Comparative Neurology, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1002/cne.24071.

Brahmachari, S., Ge, P., Lee, S. H., Kim, D., Karuppagounder, S. S., Kumar, M., . . . Ko, H. S. (2016). Activation of tyrosine kinase c-Abl contributes to α-synuclein–induced neurodegeneration. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 126(8). doi: 10.1172/jci85456.

Dautan, D., Souza, A. S., Huerta-Ocampo, I., Valencia, M., Assous, M., Witten, I. B., . . . Mena-Segovia, J. (2016). Segregated cholinergic transmission modulates dopamine neurons integrated in distinct functional circuits. Nature Neuroscience, advance online publication. doi: 10.1038/nn.4335

Opendak, M., Offit, L., Monari, P., Schoenfeld, T. J., Sonti, A. N., Cameron, H. A., & Gould, E. (2016). Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis. The Journal of Neuroscience, 36(26), 7027-7038.

Shepard, R., Page, C. E., & Coutellier, L. (2016). Sensitivity of the prefrontal GABAergic system to chronic stress in male and female mice: Relevance for sex differences in stress-related disorders. Neuroscience. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.06.038.

Smith, R., Puschmann, A., Schöll, M., Ohlsson, T., van Swieten, J., Honer, M., . . . Hansson, O. (2016). 18F-AV-1451 tau PET imaging correlates strongly with tau neuropathology in MAPT mutation carriers.  Brain.

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Scientists Observe Differences Between Brains of Stressed and Unstressed Rats After Fear Conditioning

This figure illustrates the separate and combined effects of acute stress and fear conditioning/extinction on dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons in the infralimbic region of medial prefrontal cortex. Each neuron shown is a composite made up of apical (blue) and basilar (orange) arbor near the mean of the group. The apical and basilar arbors of each composite are from different neurons. Image courtesy of Cara Wellman, PhD.

This figure illustrates the separate and combined effects of acute stress and fear conditioning/extinction on dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons in the infralimbic region of medial prefrontal cortex. Each neuron shown is a composite made up of apical (blue) and basilar (orange) arbor near the mean of the group. The apical and basilar arbors of each composite are from different neurons. Image courtesy of Cara Wellman, PhD.

A soldier jumps at the sound of fireworks. Though there is no threat to his or her life, the blasts mimic the ones heard on the battlefield, and that fear response is not easy to forget. The process of shedding a fear response like this one is called fear extinction. Scientists think patients suffering from stress-sensitive psychopathologies, like Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, aren’t able to suppress certain fear responses because of deficits in their brain circuitry induced by stress.

A recent study by researchers at Indiana University and the University of Haifa, in Israel, describes significant differences between the brains of stressed rats and unstressed rats.

Using Neurolucida to analyze neurons in the infralimbic cortex (IL) – a region of the brain associated with fear extinction – the research team found that stressed rats had shorter dendrites and less dendritic branching in pyramidal neurons of the IL. They also found that while stress had no affect on spine density, rats that underwent fear conditioning and extinction had decreased spine density on apical terminal branches, providing evidence that dendritic morphology in this region is sensitive to stress, while spine density may be a reflection of learning.

“Having helped colleagues set up procedures for neuron reconstructions and spine counts in labs that aren’t equipped with Neurolucida, I can tell you with complete confidence that my lab wouldn’t be nearly as productive without our Neurolucida system,” said Dr. Cara Wellman. “It makes mapping out regions of interest, identifying neurons for reconstruction, and reconstructions, and data analysis a simple and streamlined process. My students and I especially appreciate the Lucivid, which allows us to trace neurons while looking through the oculars  so much easier and clearer in my opinion than on a video monitor.”

To achieve their results, the researchers subjected rats to fear conditioning, where they learned to associate a certain tone with a footshock. Some of the rats were then exposed to an elevated platform in a brightly lit room for 30 minutes (stressed) while others returned to their home cages (unstressed). Next came extinction sessions. In a test to see if they would be able to shed the fear response associated with the stimulus, rats were placed in a space where they heard a tone but did not experience a footshock. The scientists observed that stressed rats exhibited freezing during the extinction sessions at a much higher rate than unstressed rats, leading them to believe that rats exposed to acute stress were resistant to fear extinction.

Further quantification of apical and basilar dendritic branching in the pyramidal neurons of the IL, measured with three-dimensional Sholl analysis, confirmed differences between the stressed and unstressed rats’ brains that correlated with fear behavior.

“The main findings of the current study were that acute stress, concurrent with producing resistance to extinction, produced changes in morphology of pyramidal neurons in IL,” the authors say in their paper. “These findings provide evidence that alterations in IL pyramidal neuron morphology occur quickly and differentially in response to acute stress and fear conditioning/extinction.”

Moench KM, Maroun M, Kavushansky A, Wellman C. Alterations in neuronal morphology in infralimbic cortex predict resistance to fear extinction following acute stress. Neurobiology of Stress. 3: 23-33. doi:10.1016/j.ynstr.2015.12.002

Researchers cited MBF systems in 15 papers during the week of 6/27/2016

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Hood, R. L., Liguore, W. A., Moore, C., Pflibsen, L., & Meshul, C. K. (2016). Exercise intervention increases spontaneous locomotion but fails to attenuate dopaminergic system loss in a progressive MPTP model in aged mice. Brain Research. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2016.06.032.

Li, Y.-Q., Cheng, Z., & Wong, S. (2016). Differential Apoptosis Radiosensitivity of Neural Progenitors in Adult Mouse Hippocampus. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17(6), 970.

Meskenaite, V., Krackow, S., & Lipp, H.-P. (2016). Age-dependent neurogenesis and neuron numbers within the olfactory bulb and hippocampus of homing pigeons.  Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 10. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2016.00126.

Qi, X., Davis, B., Chiang, Y.-H., Filichia, E., Barnett, A., Greig, N. H., . . . Luo, Y. (2016). Dopaminergic neuron-specific deletion of p53 gene is neuroprotective in an experimental Parkinson’s disease model. Journal of Neurochemistry, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1111/jnc.13706.

Qiao, C., Zhang, L.-X., Sun, X.-Y., Ding, J.-H., Lu, M., & Hu, G. (2016). Caspase-1 Deficiency Alleviates Dopaminergic Neuronal Death via Inhibiting Caspase-7/AIF Pathway in MPTP/p Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease. Molecular Neurobiology, 1-11. doi: 10.1007/s12035-016-9980-5.

Sano, K., Nakata, M., Musatov, S., Morishita, M., Sakamoto, T., Tsukahara, S., & Ogawa, S. (2016). Pubertal activation of estrogen receptor α in the medial amygdala is essential for the full expression of male social behavior in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1524907113.

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Researchers cited MBF systems in 20 papers during the week of 6/20/2016

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Bilella, A., Alvarez-Bolado, G., & Celio, M. R. (2016). The Foxb1-expressing neurons of the ventrolateral hypothalamic parvafox nucleus project to defensive circuits. Journal of Comparative Neurology, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1002/cne.24057.

Cvetanovic, M., Hu, Y.-S., & Opal, P. (2016). Mutant Ataxin-1 Inhibits Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation in SCA1.  The Cerebellum, 1-8. doi: 10.1007/s12311-016-0794-9.

Delpech, J.-C., Wei, L., Hao, J., Yu, X., Madore, C., Butovsky, O., & Kaffman, A. (2016). Early life stress perturbs the maturation of microglia in the developing hippocampus. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2016.06.006.

Herring, A., Münster, Y., Akkaya, T., Moghaddam, S., Deinsberger, K., Meyer, J., . . . Keyvani, K. (2016). Kallikrein-8 inhibition attenuates Alzheimer’s pathology in mice. Alzheimer’s & Dementia. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2016.05.006.

Herring, A., Münster, Y., Metzdorf, J., Bolczek, B., Krüssel, S., Krieter, D., . . . Keyvani, K. (2016). Late running is not too late against Alzheimer’s pathology. Neurobiology of Disease, 94, 44-54. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2016.06.003.

Madhavadas, S., & Subramanian, S. (2016). Cognition enhancing effect of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on non-transgenic Alzheimer’s disease rat model: Biochemical, histological, and behavioural studies. Nutritional Neuroscience, 1-12.

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Researchers cited MBF systems in 11 papers during the week of 6/6/2016

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Aghoghovwia, B. E., & Oorschot, D. E. (2016). Absolute number of parvicellular and magnocellular neurons in the red nucleus of the rat midbrain: a stereological study. Journal of Anatomy, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1111/joa.12495.

Mehta, P., Premkumar, B., & Morris, R. (2016). Production of high quality brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) RNA from isolated populations of rat spinal cord motor neurons obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM). Neuroscience Letters. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2016.05.063.

Rau, K. K., Hill, C. E., Harrison, B. J., Venkat, G., Koenig, H. M., Cook, S. B., . . . Petruska, J. C. (2016). Cutaneous tissue damage induces long-lasting nociceptive sensitization and regulation of cellular stress- and nerve injury-associated genes in sensory neurons. Experimental Neurology. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2016.06.002.

Singh-Bains, M. K., Tippett, L. J., Hogg, V. M., Synek, B. J., Roxburgh, R. H., Waldvogel, H. J., & Faull, R. L. M. (2016). Globus pallidus degeneration and clinico-pathological features of Huntington’s disease. Annals of Neurology, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1002/ana.24694.

Sturm, E., Fellner, L., Krismer, F., Poewe, W., Wenning, G. K., & Stefanova, N. (2016). Neuroprotection by Epigenetic Modulation in a Transgenic Model of Multiple System Atrophy.. Neurotherapeutics, 1-9. doi: 10.1007/s13311-016-0447-1.

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Researchers cited MBF systems in 15 papers between 5/20/2016 and 6/3/2016

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Acabchuk, R., Briggs, D. I., Angoa-Pérez, M., Powers, M., Wolferz, R., Soloway, M., . . . Conover, J. C. (2016). Repeated mild traumatic brain injury causes focal response in lateral septum and hippocampus. Concussion. doi: 10.2217/cnc-2015-0001.

Gully, J. C., Sergeyev, V. G., Bhootada, Y., Mendez-Gomez, H., Meyers, C. A., Zolotukhin, S., . . . Gorbatyuk, O. S. (2016). Up-regulation of activating transcription factor 4 induces severe loss of dopamine nigral neurons in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience Letters. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2016.05.039.

Hendrikx, G., Vries, M. H., Bauwens, M., De Saint-Hubert, M., Wagenaar, A., Guillaume, J., . . . Mottaghy, F. M. (2016). Comparison of LDPI to SPECT perfusion imaging using 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-pyrophosphate in a murine ischemic hind limb model of neovascularization. EJNMMI Research, 6(1), 1-10. doi: 10.1186/s13550-016-0199-2.

Mangus, L. M., Dorsey, J. L., Weinberg, R. L., Ebenezer, G. J., Hauer, P., Laast, V. A., & Mankowski, J. L. (2016). Tracking Epidermal Nerve Fiber Changes in Asian Macaques: Tools and Techniques for Quantitative Assessment. Toxicologic Pathology. doi: 10.1177/0192623316650286.

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Researchers cited MBF systems in 12 papers during the week of 5/16/2016

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Kim, B.-W., Jeong, K. H., Kim, J.-H., Jin, M., Kim, J.-H., Lee, M.-G., . . . Jeon, M.-T. (2016). Pathogenic Upregulation of Glial Lipocalin-2 in the Parkinsonian Dopaminergic System. The Journal of Neuroscience, 36(20), 5608-5622.

Kobro-Flatmoen, A., Nagelhus, A., & Witter, M. P. (2016). Reelin-immunoreactive neurons in entorhinal cortex layer II selectively express intracellular amyloid in early Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiology of Disease, 93, 172-183. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2016.05.012.

Li, A., Nattie, E., & Roy, S. (2016). The Enhanced CO2 Chemoreflex is Associated with Increased Number of CO2-activated Orexin Neurons in the Lateral Hypothalamus in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs). The FASEB Journal, 30(1 Supplement), 772.777.

Lindquist, R. A., Guinto, C. D., Rodas-Rodriguez, J. L., Fuentealba, L. C., Tate, M. C., Rowitch, D. H., & Alvarez-Buylla, A. (2016). Identification of proliferative progenitors associated with prominent postnatal growth of the pons. Nat Commun, 7. doi: 10.1038/ncomms11628.

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Neurolucida 360 v2.7: A minor release with major new features

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The 3 algorithms in Neurolucida 360 were used in combination
to create a smooth, accurate reconstruction

Minor releases typically don’t include new features, but Neurolucida 360 isn’t an ordinary piece of software. Neurolucida 360 v2.7 has many new features and improvements including:

  • A new automatic tracing algorithm – Rayburst Crawl
  • Capture videos of your rotating neuron reconstructions for presentations and publications
  • New backbone length analysis for dendritic spines
  • Improved handling of images exceeding 10GB

With the addition of Rayburst Crawl, Neurolucida 360 now has 3 different algorithms for automatic neuron reconstruction. Why 3 algorithms? To give you the power to choose the one that works best with your images. Labeling specificity, staining intensity, and image signal-to-noise can vary widely within a specimen – making it impossible for a single tracing algorithm to work optimally in all situations.

If you want more control over your neuron reconstructions, the same 3 algorithms can be used in user-guided mode. You follow a dendritic branch or axon with your mouse cursor and the algorithm finds the center and thickness of the process. It combines the unrivaled human ability to identify and segment objects with the speed of a computer.

Try it for yourself.

Request a free trial to see the algorithms in action

Or, if you are a customer with an up to date support subscription, download version 2.7