Scientists discovered that inactivity makes brain cells grow, but not in a good way. In a study published in the Journal of Comparative Neurology, researchers found more neuronal branching in sedentary rats compared to active rats. The growth occurred in a region of the brain that controls blood pressure, leading the scientists to hypothesize that these changes may be part of the reason inactivity is linked to an increased risk of heart disease.
Using Neurolucida to reconstruct neurons in 3D, the scientists at Dr. Patrick Mueller’s lab at Wayne State University School of Medicine, in Detroit, saw structural differences between the brains of active and inactive rats.
Focusing on the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) – an area that controls several critical biological processes that rats as well as humans do unconsciously, like swallowing, breathing, and regulating blood pressure, the scientists saw longer dendrites, more dendritic branching, and more intersections with other neurons in sedentary rats.