Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by all or part of an extra copy of chromosome 21. Image from wikigenetics.org.
Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have found that formoterol ̶ an FDA-approved drug for treating asthma and similar respiratory disorders ̶ improves cognitive function in mice genetically altered to exhibit symptoms of Down syndrome including cognitive disability.
Formoterol was chosen for the study because it activates β2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) on neurons, a task also carried out by norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter with a critical role in contextual learning. β2AR receptors play a key role in learning and memory, and are prevalent on dentate granule cells (DGCs) in the hippocampus. To limit the effects of the drug to the CNS, the authors used a βAR antagonist with no ability to cross the blood brain barrier.
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Obstetricians and midwifes have long hailed the benefits of folic acid during pregnancy. Now new research offers evidence that choline is another important nutrient for the developing fetus. Found in foods like eggs and cauliflower, choline is known to aid healthy liver function. But in the past few years, studies have shown that the nutrient also plays a role in brain development. One recent study by Velasquez and colleagues claims that increased choline during pregnancy may offer a possible therapy for Down syndrome.
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