Humans Generate Most Cerebellar Granule Cells Postnatally

Human cerebellum section with silver stain

Human cerebellum section with silver staining. Image from the Iowa Virtual Slidebox

The human brain undergoes extraordinary development in utero, with major growth continuing throughout childhood, especially during the first year. Scientists know a lot about how the neurons and circuits of the human brain develop in infancy, but a lack of specific knowledge about key elements has left doctors mystified by certain childhood disorders like SIDS and autism.

Neuroscientists at Ludwig-Maximillians-University of Munich have made new revelations about the development of cerebellar granule neurons. The smallest and most numerous type of neuron in the human brain, these cells transmit motor and sensory information to Purkinje cells, large neurons that are said to play a role in coordinating motor movement and are the sole source of output for the cerebellar cortex.

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Neurolucida & Stereo Investigator Help Uncover Cerebellar Granule Cells’ Role in Muscle Memory

Parallel-fibers

Learning a new dance routine or how to ride a bike is possible because of Cerebellar Granule Cells (GCs) according to Galliano and colleagues in The Netherlands. To find out more about the role of these abundant brain cells, and why we have so many of them, the scientists silenced most of the GCs in a group of mutant mice. They found the rodents could balance and run as well as they ever did, but when it came to learning new activities involving motor function, the mice had a harder time.

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