Humans invent tools, talk to each other, and philosophize, thanks to a part of the brain known as the neocortex. All mammals have it, allowing them to function on a more sophisticated level than animals like geckos and sea anemones. And then there are birds. Avians don’t have a neocortex, yet they display higher level processes in their behavior, a characteristic which led Dr. Harvey Karten to speculate about the existence of a similar structure in birds. New research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences confirms his hypothesis over four decades later.