Researchers cited MBF systems in 21 papers during the week of 10/3/2016

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Augur, I. F., Wyckoff, A. R., Aston-Jones, G., Kalivas, P. W., & Peters, J. (2016). Chemogenetic Activation of an Extinction Neural Circuit Reduces Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking. The Journal of Neuroscience, 36(39), 10174-10180.

Bocchio, M., Fisher, S. P., Unal, G., Ellender, T. J., Vyazovskiy, V. V., & Capogna, M. (2016). Sleep and serotonin modulate paracapsular nitric oxide synthase expressing neurons of the amygdale. [10.1523/ENEURO.0177-16.2016]. eneuro.

Cope, E. C., Briones, B. A., Brockett, A. T., Martinez, S., Vigneron, P.-A., Opendak, M., . . . Gould, E. (2016). Immature neurons and radial glia, but not astrocytes or microglia, are altered in adult Cntnap2 and Shank3 mice, models of autism. [10.1523/ENEURO.0196-16.2016]. eneuro.

Dela Cruz, J. A. D., Coke, T., & Bodnar, R. J. (2016). Simultaneous Detection of c-Fos Activation from Mesolimbic and Mesocortical Dopamine Reward Sites Following Naive Sugar and Fat Ingestion in Rats. (114), e53897. doi: doi:10.3791/53897.

Dixon, K. J., Mier, J., Gajavelli, S., Turbic, A., Bullock, R., Turnley, A. M., & Liebl, D. J. (2016). EphrinB3 restricts endogenous neural stem cell migration after traumatic brain injury. Stem Cell Research. doi:

Fahimi, A., Baktir, M. A., Moghadam, S., Mojabi, F. S., Sumanth, K., McNerney, M. W., . . . Salehi, A. (2016). Physical exercise induces structural alterations in the hippocampal astrocytes: exploring the role of BDNF-TrkB signaling. Brain Structure and Function, 1-12. doi: 10.1007/s00429-016-1308-8.

Fernandez-Gonzalez, P., Benavides-Piccione, R., Leguey, I., Bielza, C., Larrañaga, P., & DeFelipe, J. (2016). Dendritic-branching angles of pyramidal neurons of the human cerebral cortex. Brain Structure and Function, 1-13. doi: 10.1007/s00429-016-1311-0.  Continue reading “Researchers cited MBF systems in 21 papers during the week of 10/3/2016” »

Researchers cited MBF systems in 17 papers during the week of 9/26/2016

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Biedermann, S. V., Auer, M. K., Bindila, L., Ende, G., Lutz, B., Weber-Fahr, W., . . . Fuss, J. (2016). Restricted vs. unrestricted wheel running in mice: Effects on brain, behavior and endocannabinoids. Hormones and Behavior, 86, 45-54. doi:

Choi, E. Y., Tanimura, Y., Vage, P. R., Yates, E. H., & Haber, S. N. (2016). Convergence of prefrontal and parietal anatomical projections in a connectional hub in the striatum. Neuroimage. doi:

García-Cabezas, M. Á., & Barbas, H. (2016). Anterior Cingulate Pathways May Affect Emotions Through Orbitofrontal Cortex. Cerebral Cortex. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhw284.

Gomez, A. M., Stevens, J. A. A., Mané-Damas, M., Molenaar, P., Duimel, H., Verheyen, F., . . . Martinez-Martinez, P. (2016). Silencing of Dok-7 in Adult Rat Muscle Increases Susceptibility to Passive Transfer Myasthenia Gravis. The American journal of pathology, 186(10), 2559-2568. doi:

Halici, Z., Polat, B., Cadirci, E., Topcu, A., Karakus, E., Kose, D., . . . Bayir, Y. (2016). Inhibiting renin angiotensin system in rate limiting step by aliskiren as a new approach for preventing indomethacin induced gastric ulcers. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 258, 266-275. doi:

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Researchers cited MBF systems in 12 papers during the week of 9/19/2016

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Charvet, C. J., Hof, P. R., Raghanti, M. A., van der Kouwe, A. J., Sherwood, C. C., & Takahashi, E. (2016). Combining diffusion MR tractography with stereology highlights increased cross-cortical integration in primates. Journal of Comparative Neurology, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1002/cne.24115.

Coon, E. A., Schmeichel, A. M., Parisi, J. E., Cykowski, M. D., Low, P. A., & Benarroch, E. E. (2016). Medullary neuronal loss is not associated with α-synuclein burden in multiple system atrophy. Movement Disorders, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1002/mds.26798.

Filichia, E., Hoffer, B., Qi, X., & Luo, Y. (2016). Inhibition of Drp1 mitochondrial translocation provides neural protection in dopaminergic system in a Parkinson’s disease model induced by MPTP. [Article]. Scientific Reports, 6, 32656. doi: 10.1038/srep32656

Hodges, J. L., Yu, X., Gilmore, A., Bennett, H., Tjia, M., Perna, J. F., . . . Zuo, Y. (2016). Astrocytic Contributions to Synaptic and Learning Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome. Biological Psychiatry. doi:

Komnig, D., Schulz, J. B., Reich, A., & Falkenburger, B. H. (2016). Mice lacking Faim2 show increased cell death in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson Disease. Journal of Neurochemistry, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1111/jnc.13847.

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Stereological Study Reveals Neuron and Glia Proliferation in Hippocampus of Lithium-Treated Mice

Dentate gyruspilot

The optical fractionator probe was used to quantify the number of neurons and glia in the dentate gyrus

Doctors have used lithium to treat patients with bipolar disorder since the 1970s. Known for its efficacy in stabilizing patients’ moods by regulating manic episodes, lithium is also associated with a decreased risk of suicide. But while this naturally occurring element is the most widely prescribed medication for those suffering from bipolar disorder, scientists still have much to learn about how lithium physically affects the brain.

A recent study published in the journal Bipolar Disorders adds to the growing body of evidence that says lithium contributes to cell proliferation in parts of the brain. Conducted by scientists at the University of Mississippi and the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, the study revealed an increased number of neurons and glia, and increased astrocyte density in the dentate gyrus of lithium-treated mice versus controls treated with a placebo.

Using the optical fractionator probe in Stereo Investigator, the researchers quantified the number of Nissl stained neurons and glial cells, and calculated astrocyte density. The results showed twenty-five percent more neurons and twenty-one percent more glia in the denate gyrus of lithium-treated mice. They also performed a stereological examination of another brain region – the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but did not witness significant differences between lithium-treated and control mice in this area.

“In this study, particular cortical regions, ie. the fascia dentata in the hippocampus and the mPFC in the cerebral cortex needed to be selected in histological sections of the mice brains,” explained Dr. Harry B.M. Uylings, “therefore the stereological counting procedure applied was the best one. Stereo Investigator greatly assisted in the counting of cells, and the software’s excel data-output was especially beneficial.”

According to the paper, the findings present a more detailed picture of lithium-induced alterations in the dentate gyrus cellular phenotype than previously available, and provide the first evidence for lithium-induced increases in glia and astrocytes.

The authors also explain that while cell number increased in the dentate gyrus of lithium-treated mice, the region’s overall volume as well as that of the greater hippocampus was unaffected by the element. The volume of the dentate gyrus and the hippocampus as a whole was measured with the Cavalieri method in Stereo Investigator.  The researchers describe the dissociation between cell proliferation and volume as “an interesting observation that warrants further investigation.”

Rajkowska, G., Clarke, G., Mahajan, G., Licht, C.M., van de Werd, H.J., Yuan, P., Stockmeier, C.A., Maji, H.K., Uylings, H.B., Differential effect of lithium on cell number in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in adult mice: a stereological study. Bipolar Disord. 2016 Feb;18(1):41-51. doi: 10.1111/bdi.12364.

Researchers cited MBF systems in 12 papers during the week of 9/5/2016

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Cai, Y., Chew, C., Muñoz, F., & Sengelaub, D. R. (2016). Neuroprotective effects of testosterone metabolites and dependency on receptor action on the morphology of somatic motoneurons following the death of neighboring motoneurons. Developmental Neurobiology, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1002/dneu.22445

Langenfurth, A., Gu, S., Bautze, V., Zhang, C., Neumann, J. E., Schüller, U., . . . Glass, R. (2016). Decreased demand for olfactory periglomerular cells impacts on neural precursor cell viability in the rostral migratory stream. Scientific Reports, 6, 32203. doi: 10.1038/srep32203

Lee, Y.-S., Wu, S., Livingston Arinzeh, T., & Bartlett Bunge, M. (2016). Enhanced noradrenergic axon regeneration into Schwann cell-filled PVDF-TrFE conduits after complete spinal cord transection. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1002/bit.26088.

Morita, T., Sasaki, M., Kataoka-Sasaki, Y., Nakazaki, M., Nagahama, H., Oka, S., . . . Honmou, O. (2016). Intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stem cells promotes functional recovery in a model of chronic spinal cord injury. Neuroscience, 335, 221-231. doi:

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Researchers cited MBF systems in 17 papers during the week of 7/18/2016

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Chandra, G., Rangasamy, S. B., Roy, A., Kordower, J. H., & Pahan, K. (2016). Neutralization of RANTES and Eotaxin Prevents the Loss of Dopaminergic Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinson Disease. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 291(29), 15267-15281. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.714824

Doucet-Beaupré, H., Gilbert, C., Profes, M. S., Chabrat, A., Pacelli, C., Giguère, N., . . . Lévesque, M. (2016). Lmx1a and Lmx1b regulate mitochondrial functions and survival of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1520387113

Kalidindi, A., Kelly, S. D., Singleton, K. S., Guzman, D., Merrill, L., Willard, S. L., . . . Neigh, G. N. (2016). Reduced marker of vascularization in the anterior hippocampus in a female monkey model of depression. Physiology and Behavior. doi:

Kobayashi, K., Sano, H., Kato, S., Kuroda, K., Nakamuta, S., Isa, T., . . . Kobayashi, K. (2016). Survival of corticostriatal neurons by Rho/Rho-kinase signaling pathway. Neuroscience Letters. doi:

Lei, P., Ayton, S., Appukuttan, A. T., Moon, S., Duce, J. A., Volitakis, I., . . . Bush, A. I. (2016). Lithium suppression of tau induces brain iron accumulation and neurodegeneration. Molecular Psychiatry. doi: 10.1038/mp.2016.96.

Liang, S.-H., Yin, J.-B., Sun, Y., bai, Y., Zhou, K.-X., Zhao, W.-J., . . . Li, Y.-Q. (2016). Collateral Projections from the Lateral Parabrachial Nucleus to the Paraventricular Thalamic Nucleus and the Central Amygdaloid Nucleus in the Rat. Neuroscience Letters. doi:

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Researchers cited MBF systems in 18 papers during the week of 7/11/2016

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Baufeld, C., Osterloh, A., Prokop, S., Miller, K. R., & Heppner, F. L. (2016). High-fat diet-induced brain region-specific phenotypic spectrum of CNS resident microglia. Acta Neuropathologica, 1-15. doi: 10.1007/s00401-016-1595-4.

Bischoff, S., Schmidt, M., Lehmann, T., Irintchev, A., Schubert, H., Jung, C., . . . Schiffner, R. (2016). Increase of cortical cerebral blood flow and further cerebral microcirculatory effects of Serelaxin in a sheep model.  American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

Chou, C.-H., & Modo, M. (2016). Human neural stem cell-induced endothelial morphogenesis requires autocrine/paracrine and juxtacrine signaling. Scientific Reports, 6, 29029. doi: 10.1038/srep29029

El Massri, N., Moro, C., Torres, N., Darlot, F., Agay, D., Chabrol, C., . . . Mitrofanis, J. (2016). Near-infrared light treatment reduces astrogliosis in MPTP-treated monkeys.  Experimental Brain Research, 1-8. doi: 10.1007/s00221-016-4720-7.

Janer, A., Prudent, J., Paupe, V., Fahiminiya, S., Majewski, J., Sgarioto, N., . . . Gingras, A. C. (2016). SLC25A46 is required for mitochondrial lipid homeostasis and cristae maintenance and is responsible for Leigh syndrome. EMBO Molecular Medicine, e201506159.

Moro, C., Massri, N. E., Darlot, F., Torres, N., Chabrol, C., Agay, D., . . . Benabid, A.-L. (2016). Effects of a higher dose of near-infrared light on clinical signs and neuroprotection in a monkey model of Parkinson’s disease. Brain Research. doi:

Petryszyn, S., Di Paolo, T., Parent, A., & Parent, M. (2016). The number of striatal cholinergic interneurons expressing calretinin is increased in parkinsonian monkeys. Neurobiology of Disease. doi:

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Researchers cited MBF systems in 18 papers during the week of 7/4/2016

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Botterill, J. J., Nogovitsyn, N., Caruncho, H. J., & Kalynchuk, L. E. (2016). Selective plasticity of hippocampal GABAergic interneuron populations following kindling of different brain regions. Journal of Comparative Neurology, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1002/cne.24071.

Brahmachari, S., Ge, P., Lee, S. H., Kim, D., Karuppagounder, S. S., Kumar, M., . . . Ko, H. S. (2016). Activation of tyrosine kinase c-Abl contributes to α-synuclein–induced neurodegeneration. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 126(8). doi: 10.1172/jci85456.

Dautan, D., Souza, A. S., Huerta-Ocampo, I., Valencia, M., Assous, M., Witten, I. B., . . . Mena-Segovia, J. (2016). Segregated cholinergic transmission modulates dopamine neurons integrated in distinct functional circuits. Nature Neuroscience, advance online publication. doi: 10.1038/nn.4335

Opendak, M., Offit, L., Monari, P., Schoenfeld, T. J., Sonti, A. N., Cameron, H. A., & Gould, E. (2016). Lasting Adaptations in Social Behavior Produced by Social Disruption and Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis. The Journal of Neuroscience, 36(26), 7027-7038.

Shepard, R., Page, C. E., & Coutellier, L. (2016). Sensitivity of the prefrontal GABAergic system to chronic stress in male and female mice: Relevance for sex differences in stress-related disorders. Neuroscience. doi:

Smith, R., Puschmann, A., Schöll, M., Ohlsson, T., van Swieten, J., Honer, M., . . . Hansson, O. (2016). 18F-AV-1451 tau PET imaging correlates strongly with tau neuropathology in MAPT mutation carriers.  Brain.

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Scientists Observe Differences Between Brains of Stressed and Unstressed Rats After Fear Conditioning

This figure illustrates the separate and combined effects of acute stress and fear conditioning/extinction on dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons in the infralimbic region of medial prefrontal cortex. Each neuron shown is a composite made up of apical (blue) and basilar (orange) arbor near the mean of the group. The apical and basilar arbors of each composite are from different neurons. Image courtesy of Cara Wellman, PhD.

This figure illustrates the separate and combined effects of acute stress and fear conditioning/extinction on dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons in the infralimbic region of medial prefrontal cortex. Each neuron shown is a composite made up of apical (blue) and basilar (orange) arbor near the mean of the group. The apical and basilar arbors of each composite are from different neurons. Image courtesy of Cara Wellman, PhD.

A soldier jumps at the sound of fireworks. Though there is no threat to his or her life, the blasts mimic the ones heard on the battlefield, and that fear response is not easy to forget. The process of shedding a fear response like this one is called fear extinction. Scientists think patients suffering from stress-sensitive psychopathologies, like Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, aren’t able to suppress certain fear responses because of deficits in their brain circuitry induced by stress.

A recent study by researchers at Indiana University and the University of Haifa, in Israel, describes significant differences between the brains of stressed rats and unstressed rats.

Using Neurolucida to analyze neurons in the infralimbic cortex (IL) – a region of the brain associated with fear extinction – the research team found that stressed rats had shorter dendrites and less dendritic branching in pyramidal neurons of the IL. They also found that while stress had no affect on spine density, rats that underwent fear conditioning and extinction had decreased spine density on apical terminal branches, providing evidence that dendritic morphology in this region is sensitive to stress, while spine density may be a reflection of learning.

“Having helped colleagues set up procedures for neuron reconstructions and spine counts in labs that aren’t equipped with Neurolucida, I can tell you with complete confidence that my lab wouldn’t be nearly as productive without our Neurolucida system,” said Dr. Cara Wellman. “It makes mapping out regions of interest, identifying neurons for reconstruction, and reconstructions, and data analysis a simple and streamlined process. My students and I especially appreciate the Lucivid, which allows us to trace neurons while looking through the oculars  so much easier and clearer in my opinion than on a video monitor.”

To achieve their results, the researchers subjected rats to fear conditioning, where they learned to associate a certain tone with a footshock. Some of the rats were then exposed to an elevated platform in a brightly lit room for 30 minutes (stressed) while others returned to their home cages (unstressed). Next came extinction sessions. In a test to see if they would be able to shed the fear response associated with the stimulus, rats were placed in a space where they heard a tone but did not experience a footshock. The scientists observed that stressed rats exhibited freezing during the extinction sessions at a much higher rate than unstressed rats, leading them to believe that rats exposed to acute stress were resistant to fear extinction.

Further quantification of apical and basilar dendritic branching in the pyramidal neurons of the IL, measured with three-dimensional Sholl analysis, confirmed differences between the stressed and unstressed rats’ brains that correlated with fear behavior.

“The main findings of the current study were that acute stress, concurrent with producing resistance to extinction, produced changes in morphology of pyramidal neurons in IL,” the authors say in their paper. “These findings provide evidence that alterations in IL pyramidal neuron morphology occur quickly and differentially in response to acute stress and fear conditioning/extinction.”

Moench KM, Maroun M, Kavushansky A, Wellman C. Alterations in neuronal morphology in infralimbic cortex predict resistance to fear extinction following acute stress. Neurobiology of Stress. 3: 23-33. doi:10.1016/j.ynstr.2015.12.002

Researchers cited MBF systems in 15 papers during the week of 6/27/2016

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Hood, R. L., Liguore, W. A., Moore, C., Pflibsen, L., & Meshul, C. K. (2016). Exercise intervention increases spontaneous locomotion but fails to attenuate dopaminergic system loss in a progressive MPTP model in aged mice. Brain Research. doi:

Li, Y.-Q., Cheng, Z., & Wong, S. (2016). Differential Apoptosis Radiosensitivity of Neural Progenitors in Adult Mouse Hippocampus. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17(6), 970.

Meskenaite, V., Krackow, S., & Lipp, H.-P. (2016). Age-dependent neurogenesis and neuron numbers within the olfactory bulb and hippocampus of homing pigeons.  Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 10. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2016.00126.

Qi, X., Davis, B., Chiang, Y.-H., Filichia, E., Barnett, A., Greig, N. H., . . . Luo, Y. (2016). Dopaminergic neuron-specific deletion of p53 gene is neuroprotective in an experimental Parkinson’s disease model. Journal of Neurochemistry, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1111/jnc.13706.

Qiao, C., Zhang, L.-X., Sun, X.-Y., Ding, J.-H., Lu, M., & Hu, G. (2016). Caspase-1 Deficiency Alleviates Dopaminergic Neuronal Death via Inhibiting Caspase-7/AIF Pathway in MPTP/p Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease. Molecular Neurobiology, 1-11. doi: 10.1007/s12035-016-9980-5.

Sano, K., Nakata, M., Musatov, S., Morishita, M., Sakamoto, T., Tsukahara, S., & Ogawa, S. (2016). Pubertal activation of estrogen receptor α in the medial amygdala is essential for the full expression of male social behavior in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1524907113.

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